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Disability Needs Assessment / Situational Analysis
Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Manyara & Tanga Regions
Terms of Reference (ToR)
Organisation: African Initiatives (AI) (www.african-initiatives.org.uk/)
Geographical Target Regions: Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Manyara and Tanga (Tanzania; East Africa)
Operational Priorities: (i) Health & well-being, (ii) Education, (iii) Livelihoods
(Current) Local Tanzanian Partner Organisations:
• Childreach Tanzania
• Community Aid and Small Enterprises Consultancy (CASEC)
• Community Research & Development (CORDS)
• Pastoral Women’s Council (PWC)
• Tanzanian Women Research Foundation (TAWREF)
• TUSONGE Community Development Organisation (TUSONGE)
• Ujama Community Research Team (UCRT)
African Initiatives was registered as a charity in 1997. We take a rights based approach to our work with a clear vision to empower individuals and communities to demand and exercise their rights. Together with our partners in Ghana and Tanzania we strive to find sustainable African solutions, through collaboration and respect.
We support people to have their voices heard so that they are better able to claim their rights. The right to an education, to health, to stay on traditional land. A right to equal treatment, to financial stability and a right to have a say in decisions that shape the future.
We support African Initiatives that come from local people. Our work is built from the ideas and ambitions of disadvantaged people in Africa, creating African solutions to African problems.
Our Strategic priorities are embedded within the Sustainable Development Goals 3: Gender Equality and 10: Reduced Inequalities. Our vision is that women and girls in marginalised African communities enjoy equal status and are empowered to achieve their potential.
Our programme priorities contribute to improving health and well-being, educational learning outcomes and livelihoods and resilience. We work to ensure persons with disabilities, people living with HIV or other disadvantaged people in the community are not left behind. Climate change is a reality and undermines community resilience to natural and economic shocks. Therefore we ensure climate change adaptation is integral to our projects.
Disability in Community Development Work
The World Report on Disability (WHO 2011) is seen as the most reliable source on disability data and statistics and estimates that over a billion, i.e. 15% of the world population have some form of disability. Disability prevalence is higher in low and middle income countries and higher among women (19%) than men (12%).
In Tanzania is estimated that 5.93 -7.8 % of the population have some form of disability. Despite progress in the enactment of legislation and policies related to disability, Tanzania faces very significant challenges in the implementation of the law and the policy, as well as in honouring Tanzania’s commitments related to the UNCRPD.
Poverty can cause disability as much as disability increases poverty levels. Poor people have less access to health, good nutrition, and safe working environments – all of which increase chances of acquiring a disability. Persons with disability face many attitudinal, physical and institutional barriers. These limit or completely exclude them, for example, from access to education, health services, legal systems or access to meaningful participation in political and social representation. This prolongs their exclusion from decisions that could improve their equality in society and therefore quality of life. The illiteracy rate among Tanzanians with disabilities is 48%, compared to 25% among people without disabilities. The exclusion of persons with disabilities from the workplace, either through discrimination or inaccessible work environments, costs Tanzania $480 million every year - 3.76% of the country’s GDP.
Disability inclusion leads to increased income and labour productivity, improved individual and family well-being and wider social benefits through a more inclusive and accessible society for all. Both Tanzania and Ghana have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2009 and 2012 respectively, and Tanzania has developed a National Strategy on Inclusive Education.
African Initiatives adhere to the UNCRPD definition of disability:
‘Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others’ (UNCRPD, 2006, p. 4).”
Purpose of Needs Assessment / Situational Analysis
African Initiatives is embarking on a new five year organisational Strategic Plan (2017-2022). Disability has been identified as a key cross-cutting issue to be addressed across our programmes and portfolio of work.
A key objective within the Strategic Plan is that by 2022 throughout our programmes we aim to ensure the full participation of persons with disabilities, through empowerment and as advocates in their own development processes. We work to address the attitudinal, environmental and institutional barriers, which hinder persons with disabilities’ access to services, full participation in political, social and economic spheres and achieving their potential through our health and well-being, education and livelihoods programmes. As part of rolling out our organisational Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Framework we are starting to ask the Washington Group Questions on disability as part of our project baseline.
African Initiatives is looking to better understand the current and projected needs and provision of people living with disabilities in Tanzania.
Scope of Needs Assessment / Situational Analysis
The questions/issues, which we would like to better understand are:
• National level policy and legislation regarding disability in Tanzania in general, and specifically in relation to AI operational priorities: Health & Wellbeing, Education, Livelihoods.
• Insight into the direction and focus of the Tanzanian Government on Disability service provision in AI operational priorities: Health & Wellbeing, Education, Livelihoods.
• Overview of the status and structures of Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) in AI operational target areas including:
o (How) have DPOs been lobbying the Tanzanian Government and how effective has this been? Examples of good practice?
o How have DPOs worked in collaboration with other NGOs and INGOs? Has this been effective? Examples of good practice?
• What is the current disability provision in AI operational target areas i.e. available services and resources? Is this projected to change? Is there a commitment / political will to increase access and quality of services and resources? E.g. in terms of livelihoods are there saving schemes specifically targeting or benefitting people living with disabilities?
• What is the current disability provision in Pastoralist & Hunter/Gatherer communities’ i.e. available services and resources? Is this projected to change? Is there a commitment / political will to increase access and quality of resources?
• Mapping current provision in Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Manyara and Tanga Regions of:
o Disabled People’s Organisations
o Institutions for children living with disabilities
o Specialised schools / educational facilities for children living with disabilities
• What are the challenges, opportunities and options available for Institutions and Specialised schools working with and providing services for children living with disabilities?
• What initiatives / projects is the Government of Tanzania or Universities (such as the University of Dar-es-Salaam) currently engaged with in relation to providing (a) services to people living with disabilities, and (b) educational services to children living with disabilities?
• What are the estimated number / type of disabilities in AI operational target areas (disaggregated by age group, sex, and ethnicity)?
• What are the estimated number / type of disabilities amongst Pastoralist & Hunter/Gatherer communities?
• The number of disabled children (#/%) currently in pre-school, primary school and secondary school in Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Manyara and Tanga Regions
• What are the specific challenges women and girls living with a disability face in:
o Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Manyara and Tanga Regions
o The three AI organisational priority areas:
Health & Wellbeing
• What barriers do women of different ages and ethnicity experience in accessing basic health care, education and state and government livelihood programmes and schemes?
• What needs to change to make the lives of women and girls living with disabilities better?
• Examples of good practice in disability inclusive primary service provision, such as health, education and water provision – sourced from Tanzania and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa?
• Examples of good practice in inclusive development programmes, such as agriculture, savings schemes and animal husbandry - sourced from Tanzania and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa?
• What support/capacity development do African Initiatives’ partner organisations need to develop a disability inclusive approach to their programmes?
Outputs of Needs Assessment / Situational Analysis
• A Situation Analysis/Needs Assessment report of the challenges and barriers women and girls with a disability face – categorised in the areas of (i) health and well-being, (ii) education and (iii) livelihoods.
• List/map of Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) and other key stakeholders in AI operational target areas.
• Recommendations on how African Initiatives’ and its partner organisations in Tanzania can phase-in a disability inclusive approach within each of its programme areas (i) health and well-being, (ii) education and (iii) livelihoods – and what is out of African Initiatives’ scope of work (but might be addressed through referrals or partnerships).
Proposed Reporting Format
- Introduction (approximately 6 pages)
o general information about Disability in Tanzania and in AI operational target areas;
o the prevalence and most common causes of disability;
o the cultural and historical context of disability in Tanzania including myths, stigma and superstitions;
o rationale for the study;
o challenges and barriers women and girls with a disability face – categorised in the areas of (i) health and well-being, (ii) education and (iii) livelihoods.
- Methodology (approximately 3 pages)
o description of what was done, where and how.
- Public Services Provision (approximately 8 pages)
o list, and contact details, of government ministries involved in services for disabled people, including early diagnostic services;
o current public services provision;
o gaps in public service provision.
- Private Services Provision (approximately 8 pages)
o list of main local NGOs, INGOs, DPOs and religious organisations working with people with disabilities (children) and their families;
o current service provision by NGOs, INGOs, DPOs and religious organisations
o gaps in private service provision.
- Analysis of findings and Recommendations (approximately 5 pages)
o lists of organisations & people met & spoken with;
o sample interviews used and focus group themes;
o references (sources and publications consulted);
o The Appendix will include the following details of all the private organisations visited/contacted: name, contact details, brief description of their work with disabled people, annual turnover and sources of funding.
The report will be a maximum of 30 A4 pages long, excluding Appendices.
The consultant(s) should be aware that The Needs Assessment / Situational Analysis will lead to the….
• Development of a disability strategy for African Initiatives in Tanzania with following components:
o A disability inclusive approach within each of our projects taking into account the needs and barriers women and girls with a disability face;
o Identification of existing resources and knowledge/examples of good practices to build on and/or link with;
o Establishment of key partnerships with Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs), and other relevant stakeholders, in the geographic areas identified.
The methodology should include the following:
• Desk research on Legislation and policy papers from Government agencies and DPOs/NGOs (see Annex 1).
• Interviews with African Initiatives (UK and Tanzania) and partner organisations in Tanzania (contact details to be provided to successful consultant).
• Interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) with (i) disabled women and girls, (ii) parents and teachers, (iii) health workers, (iv) government officials & other key stakeholders using thematic questionnaires based on the reporting criteria and African Initiatives’ programme areas (health, education and livelihoods). The consultant(s) will work independently, but AI local partners organisations can provide introduction letters to schools, District officials etc.
• Interviews with Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) in geographic target areas (including Motivation).
• Interviews with other NGO stakeholders such as SHIVYAWATA (Northern Zone) and ADD Tanzania (Dar-es-Salaam) – what can we learn from their Inclusive Education project , VSO (Inclusive Education project).
• Interviews with district officials as well as key representatives of ministries and state agencies responsible for social protection legislation, policies and programmes on disability.
For more information or to express an interest / submit an application please contact:
David Baines, Programme Manager, African Initiatives
The deadline for submitting Expressions of Interest is: Monday 5th June 2017
The proposed timeline is as follows:
Publish TOR 8 May 2017
Deadline for submission of proposal: 5 June 2017
Interviews with short-listed candidates: w/c 19 June 2017
Contract awarded: 1 July 2017
Sign off revised methodology/inception report 14 July
(Including a timetable of visits and interviews)
Submission draft report TBC
Final report TBC
• Previous experience of conducting situation analyses/needs assessments in the disability sector.
• Sound understanding of disability issues, intersectional discrimination and social inclusion.
• Previous experience in applying participatory and inclusive methodologies.
• English and Swahili language skills.
Expression of Interest (in English) should contain:
• Cover letter (max. 2 pages), outlining why you are qualified to conduct this piece of work.
• Proposal (Maximum 3. pages) including:
- Your understanding of the Needs Assessment / Situational Analysis required;
- Outline of proposed methodology and timeline including additions, amendments to approach mentioned in the TOR;
- Evidence of similar work previously conducted.
• Your CV(s) – not more than 3 pages per CV
• Your budget to deliver the Needs Assessment / Situational Analysis separating out the fees and expenses.
• Estimated number of days: 20
Organisation African Initiatives