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The distribution of latrines is planned to be implemented in year 3 of the Community Based Health and First Aid (CBHFA) program and will cover 10,748 households. As this is an important component of the program (2,6 millions $) it is recommended that we first conduct an evaluation of previous Canadian Red Cross latrines construction projects to learn from these experiences. The latrine construction will also be part of the broader Canadian Red Cross (CRC) cholera response.
The two main projects that will be considered in this evaluation are the latrines built in Jacmel and Leogane (2011-2012) and Les Nippes (2007-2009), using different types of latrines and different modes of implementation. In addition to the baseline and the final report that were carried out in Les Nippes, this evaluation will be the opportunity to collect important information to inform future decisions for the CBHFA program.
The purpose of this evaluation is to enable CRC to build on previous latrine construction projects and learn from these experiences in order to ensure sustainable and effective latrine usage. As these latrines will be distributed to more than 10,000 households, CRC wants to make sure the selected type of latrines is durable and used and accepted by household occupants.
This evaluation will be looking at previous experiences to identify lessons learned and success stories in Haiti that will enable us to select the appropriate type of latrines for these communities as well as the most effective mode of implementation. The evaluation will look at other models as well as success stories in Haiti and will assess the actual usage and barriers to usage of these latrines.
The results of this evaluation will be used by CRC Haiti management team to determine the most effective way CRC/HRCS can provide latrines and health promotion messages in sanitation.
The preferred commencement date for the evaluation is August2012.
Consultant will invoice for total number of days worked not to exceed: 30 days
1.4.Location of consultancy:
The evaluation will be realized in Haiti, with a focus on Les Nippes and Jacmel and Leogane.Other sites are not excluded and shall be determined by the desk review.
1.5.Users and Intended Use:
Users Intended Use
Director of Haiti operations, Country Representative of Haiti, Health program manager
Senior Manager Shelter & Reconstruction
Senior Shelter Advisor Evidence-based planning and Knowledge Management
1.To have evidence of functioning models to develop the strategy for new latrines project.
2. Background of the Program/Project
One component of CRC’s integrated health program is intervention at the level of the community, using the International Federation approach to community based health CBHFA. The goal of this program is to increase the resilience to diseases and injuries by increasing beneficiaries’ capacity to improve health practices and seek solutions to public health problems through empowering communities to improve health at the household level and link communities with the formal health system. It is a five year initiative with a budget of 6 million CAD.
Key outcomes of this program include:
1.Improved capacity of communities to identify health problems and seek solutions to them.
2.Communities with increased access to health inputs through CBHFA volunteers.
3.Beneficiaries demonstrating improved health behaviors due to CBHFA interventions led by community volunteers.
4.Improved Haitian Red Cross systems for volunteer management and ownership at branch level and local committee level.
5.A well functioning referral and counter referral system between the community health committees and the Haitian Health Ministry.
The successful implementation of the program rests on two pillars. Pillar one is the transfer of knowledge of key health issues through training of a large corps of skilled community level volunteers that effectively provide accurate health messaging to promote behavioural change related to health practices. In pillar two, four major inputs have been included to create a supportive environment that enables beneficiaries to put health messing into practice: These are the provision at the household level of latrines, water filters and soap and first aid services in each of the 4 communal sections.
This evaluation feeds into the 2 first outcomes, with a particular focus on outcome # 2: Communities with increased access to health inputs through CBHFA volunteers. It contributes to achieving this outcome by increasing CRC’s knowledge on latrines which is an important health input that will be distributed in year 3.
It has been documented that improved hygiene (hand washing) and sanitation (latrines) have more impact than drinking water quality on health outcomes. Building on its partnership with the NLRCS in water and sanitation for shelter sites, and the CRC and Haitian Red Cross experience in Les Nippes, the CBHFA program proposes to provide a latrine to all households within the catchment areas which do not have one. As we are currently completing year 1 and entering into year 2, this evaluation will contribute in preparing the ground for this major activity.
The projects that will be evaluated are the following:
The « Projet Participatif de Santé Communautaire dans les Nippes» started in August 2006 and has been implemented in 2 communes of Les Nippes : Anse à Veau et Petit Trou de Nippes.
The project had 2 main components:
a)Training/Education on hygiene
b)Improvement of sanitation infrastructures through the implementation of micro projects.
Latrines construction was one of the micro projects that have been implemented in 29 localities from November 2006 to 2009. In total, there are 1534 families and five schools have benefited from this program.
The objective of this project was to achieve better health and reduced risk of disease outbreaks for 7500 vulnerable households whose shelters were destroyed by the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Jacmel and Leogane department in Haiti. For each household, constructed by CRC, Netherlands Red Cross provided the family with the necessary water, sanitation and hygiene promotion.
Most of CRC and Netherland Red Cross area of operation in Leogane is in the flood pone zone with a high water table. Pit latrines are not adequate for those locations. Netherland Red Cross WASH team designed pour flush latrine coupled with septic tank for these high water table zone, except for Fond’wa which is located in the mountain at 20 km from Leogane.
Alternated-ventilated improved pit is a technical option made for Fond’wa where water is not available to be used for pour flush latrine. The cabins of the latrines in Fond’wa are in blocks reinforced by iron bars because strong winds flow in this mountain area.
The objectives behind these two technical choices of latrines are to offer to the beneficiaries’ permanent latrines at affordable price, latrines which minimize the impact on the environment. These latrines when well maintained will remain for several years.
Participation was requested from the beneficiaries. Netherland Red Cross can only build latrines if the beneficiaries accept to dig the pit; provide water and aggregates for the soak away pit (locally available); provide storage for the construction materials; and insure security during the construction period. For elderly people who do not have relative to help them, their participation is not a must.
3. Evaluation Scope
Scope of this evaluation:
1.Scope of sector:
As a pilot project, 584 family latrines have first been built. Following this pilot, 950 additional latrines have been built and distributed in 29 localities within 2 Sections Communales (Raymond et Bacconois) from the Communes de Petit Trou de Nippes and d’Anse à Veau in which the project intervene. In total 1534 family latrines and 4 school latrines were built from 2007 to 2009.
Approximately 5,000 latrines have been built in Leogane and 2,500 in Jacmel.
Other sites are not excluded. Following the desk review, the consultant could suggest other projects that could be of interested for this evaluation. These recommendations will be considered by the evaluation management team.
2.Scope of evaluation criteria:
The selected evaluation criteria are:
Partnerships and coordination
Cross-Cutting Themes to be considered in the Evaluation (select those applicable):
Capacity Building. The extent to which capacity building of the HNS and targeted communities is done and their positive and negative effects. This could be part of sustainability evaluation criteria.
3.Scope on stakeholders:
The main stakeholders include – but are not limited to – the following:
-Local communities (direct beneficiaries of project)
-Canadian Red Cross
-Netherland Red Cross
-Haitian Red Cross
-Direction Nationale de l'Eau Potable et de l'Assainissement (DINEPA)
4.Scope of program sites:
The three main sites that will be covered by the evaluation are: Jacmel, Leogane and Les Nippes. The exact communities within these communes will be further identified.
4. Evaluation Criteria and Key Evaluation Questions
•Was the selected type of latrines appropriate for local communities?
•What are the technical / building codes used to design (structures)? What are the construction materials?
•Does the construction quality meets the minimum quality specification according to building codes and considers disaster risks?
•What model of latrine is the most appropriate in terms of limiting the environmental impact?
•What role have community members played in the latrine’s building process?
•How did the latrine design take into account the needs of the full range of users (i.e. children, the elderly, disabled, single women head of households) and considers relevant risks such as violence?
•Are beneficiaries using the latrines?
•Are beneficiaries ensuring proper maintenance of the latrines (repairing, cleaning, etc.)?
•How many of latrines constructed have already required repairs or been repaired (or not)?
•Did the model of implementation contribute to increasing ownership among communities?
•What were the major factors which influenced the achievement or non-achievement of sustainability of project results?
•What factors facilitated families to consistently use household latrines and teach their children to do the same?
•How have these projects contribute to eradicating open defecation?
•How did seasonality and night-time /daytime effect usage?
•How comprehensive was the project design related to hand washing stations outside latrines, lighting (solar or otherwise), plan for repairs, etc.
•What were the financial and human resources mobilized in the process?
•What were the outputs of the projects?
•What were the financial and human resources in relation to the outputs of the project? How does this compare with similar interventions elsewhere?
5. Evaluation Methodology and Process
•Desk review of documented latrine projects in Haiti (Red Cross/Red Crescent and non Red Cross/Red Crescent – including the evaluation conducted by Netherland Red Cross in Jacmel)
•Literature review in scientific documents in order to determine success stories in Open Defecation Strategy and Participatory Hygiene And Sanitation Transformation (PHAST)
•Stakeholder interviews: Haitian Red Cross, volunteers who worked on the project in Les Nippes, Partner National Societies, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent in Haiti (Health team, Watsan, Logistics, Program Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting departments), Direction Nationale de l'Eau Potable et de l'Assainissement (DINEPA), and relevant NGOs/clusters.
•Field observation and key informant interviews with field staff, volunteers and beneficiaries as relevant to answer key objectives.
The evaluation management team will be comprised of CRC Health Program Manager in Haiti,
Health Program Manager in Ottawa, Evaluation Manager and Health Advisor, Shelter Advisor and Haitian Red Cross.
The evaluation will be lead by an external evaluator. He or she will be responsible for the overall evaluation from design, preparation of tools, data collection, coordination with relevant parties, and finalising the report (to be revised accordingly).
Key milestones of the evaluation are:
-Hiring of Consultant
-Desk review and submission of an inception report (max of 3 days)
-Comments from relevant parties on the inception report (1 week commenting period)
-Finalization of inception report (max of 1 day)
-Travel and field mission in Port-au-Prince, Jacmel, Leogane and Les Nippes (+other sites if needed) (max of 18 days of field visit – inclusive of travel time)
-In-country workshop (to be done during field mission)
-Submission of first draft report (max of 4 days)
-Submission of comments to the consultant by CRC (1 week commenting period)
-Submission of final report by the consultant to CRC (max of 4 days)
6. Evaluation Deliverables
Inception Report – The inception report will include the proposed methodologies, data collection and reporting plans with draft data collection tools such as interview guides, a timeframe with firm dates for deliverables, and the travel and logistical arrangements for the team.
In-country workshop – This workshop will aim at presenting initial findings and follow-up actions.
The First Draft report – A draft report identifying key findings, conclusions, recommendations and lessons for the CBHFA program will be submitted within one week of the evaluation team’ return from the field to the Evaluation Management Team .
Final report – The final report will contain the following section:
- Executive summary
- Background of the intervention evaluated
- Description of the evaluation methods and limitations (including number of visits, number and type of key informants (age, gender)
- Findings (to be presented by evaluation criteria)
- Lessons learned and recommendations with suggested budgets (or estimated costs attached)
- Appendices including copy of the Terms of Reference, cited resources or bibliography, a list of those interviewed and any other relevant materials (e.g., tools).
The final report will be submitted 5 days after receipt of the consolidated feedback from the Evaluation Management Team.
7. Evaluation Quality & Ethical Standards
The evaluators should take all reasonable steps to ensure that the evaluation is designed and conducted to respect and protect the rights and welfare of the people and communities involved and to ensure that the evaluation is technically accurate and reliable, is conducted in a transparent and impartial manner, and contributes to organizational learning and accountability. The evaluator will sign and adhere to the Canadian Red Cross Code of Conduct.
The evaluation standards are:
1. Utility: Evaluations must be useful and used.
2. Feasibility: Evaluations must be realistic, diplomatic, and managed in a sensible, cost effective manner.
3.Ethics & Legality: Evaluations must be conducted in an ethical and legal manner, with particular regard for the welfare of those involved in and affected by the evaluation.
4.Impartiality & Independence; Evaluations should be impartial, providing a comprehensive and unbiased assessment that takes into account the views of all stakeholders.
5.Transparency: Evaluation activities should reflect an attitude of openness and transparency.
6.Accuracy: Evaluations should be technical accurate, providing sufficient information about the data collection, analysis, and interpretation methods so that its worth or merit can be determined.
7.Participation: Stakeholders should be consulted and meaningfully involved in the evaluation process when feasible and appropriate.
8.Collaboration: Collaboration between key operating partners in the evaluation process improves the legitimacy and utility of the evaluation.
It is also expected that the evaluation will respect the seven Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent: 1) humanity, 2) impartiality, 3) neutrality, 4) independence, 5) voluntary service, 6) unity, and 7) universality. Further information can be obtained about these Principles at: www.ifrc.org/what/values/principles/index.asp
Selection of the external evaluation consultant will be based on the following qualifications:
• Previous experience in conducting evaluation of both software and hardware of WATSAN
• Graduate degree in relevant technical discipline (e.g., civil engineering) and/or good applied knowledge in issues related to construction of the WATSAN hardware
• Public health expertise, with particular preference for hygiene and sanitation expertise
• Experience in WATSAN in developing countries
• Strong experience and skills in qualitative methodologies
• Strong analytical skills and ability to clearly synthesize and present findings
• Evaluation expertise: with practical experience in sanitation/public health emergency reviews, assessments and evaluations
• Excellent writing and presentation skills in English and French
• Fluency in French and English
• Knowledge of the Haitian context
• Knowledge/Experience of the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement is an asset
• Experience in participatory approaches to evaluations
9. Application Procedures
Interested candidates should submit their application material by August 8, 2012 to the following email: email@example.com. Application material is non-returnable, and we thank you in advance for understanding that only short-listed candidates will be contacted for the next step in the application process.
Application materials should include:
1.Curricula Vitae (CV)
2.Proposal outlining proposed methodology and work plan
3.Cover letter clearly summarizing your experience as it pertains to this final report, your daily rate, and three professional references.
4.At least one example of an evaluation report most similar to that described in this TOR.
Organisation The Canadian Red Cross Society