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Evaluation of multi-sector humanitarian response to Pakistan flooding

1. Background
Over the course of July and August 2010, Pakistan experienced the worst floods in living memory - these were the worst floods to hit the country since 1929. Heavy rainfall, flash floods and riverine floods devastated large parts of Pakistan following the arrival of seasonal monsoon rains on 22 July. According to the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) 20.36 million people have been affected by the floods across Pakistan. The death toll from the floods stands at 1,781, with 2,055 people injured and 1.9 million houses damaged or destroyed. Multiple levee failures and breaches caused the inundation of huge areas of land. It took almost 4 weeks for most of the flood waters to reach the Arabian Sea, leaving behind it a trail of destruction and damage to houses, livelihoods and other vital infrastructure.

Eighteen months since the flood hit Pakistan, there are still substantial gaps in humanitarian assistance for those most in need in the worst affected areas, especially in the shelter, WASH, agriculture and food security sectors. In addition, the floods that followed in 2011 have affected over 5 million people, and left a similar trail of destruction, particularly in Sindh province. At the same time, internal conflict is on-going in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, and communities/families continue to live in dire conditions, requiring continued humanitarian assistance. A further influx of IDPs and returnees is also expected - from and to Orakzai and Bajour Agencies (FATA) to Dir and Kohat districts - that will require prompt humanitarian response.

Since the onset of the floods in July 2010 [and the conflict/IDP crisis in 2009], Alliance2015 agencies have been responding to the humanitarian needs of the affected population with the support of various donors, including ECHO. So far, ECHO has supported Alliance2015 in 3 humanitarian response projects - two have been successfully completed, while the third project is currently underway. ACTED led the first of these multi-actor, multi-sector and multi-provincial programmes with a total of €5 million, and Welthungerhilfe the second one (€7.3 million), and lastly the third project which is under review is currently being led by ACTED, with a budget of €12 million covering two different emergency responses. These responses are the largest-scale joint emergency operations Alliance2015 members have ever been involved in, both in Pakistan and worldwide.

This Terms of Reference aims to identify an external consultant to evaluate the impact of the two different emergency response phases of this project implemented by the Alliance 2015 in Pakistan - “Provision of multi sector humanitarian assistance to the Flood and Conflict Affected Population in Pakistan” (Grant Reference: ECHO/PAK/BUD/2011/91002). The previous two ECHO grants implemented by Alliance2015 partners in Pakistan were not evaluated by an external consultant but internal learning-workshops were conducted in Spring 2011 to reflect on their cooperation in the consortia projects implemented.

1.1 Introduction to Alliance2015
Alliance2015 is a partnership of seven like-minded non-government European organizations working in the field of development cooperation and humanitarian assistance. The Alliance members are Cesvi from Italy, Concern Worldwide (Concern) from Ireland, Welthungerhilfe (WHH) from Germany, Hivos from the Netherlands, IBIS from Denmark, People in Need (PIN) from the Czech Republic and ACTED from France. Out of the seven Alliance2015 members, five agencies are currently operational in Pakistan – ACTED, Cesvi, Concern, PIN and WHH. Alliance2015 partners are involved in the implementation of various development and humanitarian assistance programmes across Pakistan.

2. Purpose and Objectives of the Evaluation
The overall purpose of the evaluation is to evaluate Alliance2015’s project entitled “Provision of multi sector humanitarian assistance to the Flood and Conflict Affected Population in Pakistan”, with a particular emphasis on the quality, appropriateness, timeliness, efficiency and effectiveness of the interventions carried out. This will allow the consultant to extract lessons learnt and recommendations to enhance the quality of on-going and future programming by Alliance2015 agencies, regarding both operational and programming issues. It should capture achievements of the project’s results and indicators, and the short and medium term impact of the action. The evaluation will also assess the extent to which the Alliance2015 partnership and cooperation model has contributed to the effectiveness of the project, and so will document the experiences/lessons learned as a result of adopting this approach.

The major questions to look into throughout the evaluation are as follows:

2.1 Relevance:
• Was the measure relevant not only to the core problem but also to the needs of the target groups?
• Did the Alliance2015 choose the right response in the right areas in the right way?
• Was the nature of the response adapted to the timeline for its provision?
• Were these areas – geographic or programmatic – that were not covered by others
• Were the most vulnerable and poorest targeted appropriately?
• Was the targeting criteria communicated and understood by all members within the community?
• To what extent were target communities involved in the needs assessment, design, and implementation of the response?
• Was the methodology used for the beneficiary selection relevant and were communities involved in the process?
• How well did the emergency response integrate with and gain advantage from the pre-floods programme capacity and knowledge?

2.2 The quality, effectiveness, efficiency and impact of the response
• Did the response achieve what it set out to do?
• What, if anything, made the Alliance2015’s approach unique and what can this uniqueness attributed to?
• Were humanitarian standards met and humanitarian principles followed? (Sphere, HAP, Codes of conduct)?
• Was the response timely, appropriate and cost effective? Were the operational systems put in place by the Alliance effective in ensuring this?
• To what extent are the interventions improving the condition of affected communities?
• How satisfied are the communities with the response?
• How well did the response mainstream/integrate gender, equality, protection, disaster risk reduction (DRR), the environment, capacity building and conflict/cultural sensitivities?
• Were the needs assessments, monitoring, evaluation systems and associated indicators appropriate?

2.3 Connectedness and coherence;
• Did the responses reduce future vulnerabilities?
• Did the mid-term early recovery activities take longer-term issues into account?
• Did the project activities build successfully on the emergency assistance phase programmes previously implemented by Alliance2015 members?
• How did the project remain in line with Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development (LRRD). What exit strategies have been planned.

2.4 The extent to which ‘lessons’ or recommendations from previous emergencies were incorporated into this response;
• Assess the extent and effectiveness of coordination between the Alliance2015 and other international and national NGOs, the UN system and government organisations.
• To what extent were the lessons identified from the previous emergency responses in Pakistan (EQ 2005, Floods 2007, and IDPs 2009) and elsewhere in the world applied to this response?
• How well did the Alliance partners collaborate with local partners and stakeholders?

2.5 Identify lessons to be learned to inform the future emergency responses
• Identify examples of best practices in ‘what has worked well’ and ‘what has not worked well’ particularly the following headings:
o Finance & Administration including fund flow, Reliability.
o Logistics and Administration;
o Assessments
o Coordination with Government

2.6 Working together as Alliance2015
• To what extent did the Alliance2015 model enhance the timeliness, quality and effectiveness of response?
o What is the added value of working as a consortium?
o What were the difficulties of working as a consortium?
o What was the additional administrative burden?
• Was the Alliance2015 model able to achieve any greater impact compared to a single agency emergency response, if so how?
• Did the Alliance2015 model achieve consistency between members across its relief assistance (quality, quantity, targeting criteria, etc.)?
• Did the consortia model offer the opportunity for learning across the agencies? If so, what manner and form did this take?
• What evidence is there (either direct or indirect) of the success of the Alliance21015 model? What, if anything, made this approach unique, and what was this uniqueness attributed to?
• How effective has the Alliance 2015 model been in comparison to other partnership/cooperation models of emergency response? This could consider a comparison to the types of responses involving consortia/alliances during Pakistan 2010 floods and elsewhere in the world.
• Does the Alliance2015 model offer opportunities for transitioning from relief to recovery, rehabilitation and development? If so, what are the recommendations for taking the model into the next phases?
• How effective and successful was the level of cooperation and communication between the agencies?
• How did Alliance 2015 members apply a joint visibility strategy. Is Alliance2015 perceived as a consortium of five individual organisations by target groups, local authorities, other stakeholders?

3. Evaluation Methodology
The methodology to be adopted during the evaluation will be developed in detail by the consultancy, and discussed with Alliance2015 partners in its preliminary stages. It will include at least the following elements:
• Literature review
• Detailed discussions with Alliance2015 members, ECHO (& other donors), relevant government agencies and other NGO’s.
• Field visits to target areas and collection of primary information including detailed discussions with a sample of target beneficiaries - process should be participatory to the extent possible
• Presentation of draft findings.
• The writing of a final detailed report and submission to Alliance2015 lead partner for feedback from all Alliance members.
• Incorporation of Alliance2015 feedback in the draft report and submission of the final report

4. Outputs
Essentially, the evaluation will produce 2 sets of outputs, as follows:
• A meeting/presentation to disseminate key (draft) findings to Alliance2015 members’ in-country.
• A final report detailing the findings, conclusions, targeted recommendations, experiences, and lessons learned (this should also consider the feedback provided on the draft report and feedback during the presentation of findings meeting). The final report should be no longer than 35 pages including a 2-5 page executive summary.

5. Duration
A total of 28 days in May / June 2012

Activity Number of Days
Preparation 3
In country meetings and data collection/field work 20
Report 5
Total 28

6. Reporting Line
In agreement with Alliance2015 members, Concern is taking the lead for this consultancy. The consultant/s will report to the Director of Programmes of Concern.

7 Consultant (s) Expertise
• Post-graduate degree in Humanitarian Studies, Disaster Management, Social Sciences and/or related field.
• At least 10 years’ experience of conducting evaluations of emergency/ humanitarian programmes.
• Previous experience of conducting evaluations of NGO consortia/alliances in emergency contexts;
• Familiarity with shelter, WASH, emergency food security and livelihoods issues, as well as knowledge of financial and economic analysis;
• Familiarity with International quality and accountability standards applied in emergencies;
• Experience in the use of participatory methodologies and developing gender sensitive evaluation methodologies;
• Experience with ECHO funded projects an advantage.
• Competency in Equality & Gender issues;
• Excellent written and spoken communications skills in English. Knowledge of the Pakistani regional context and languages will be an advantage;
• Experience in assessing organizational capacity and gaps and ability to recommend the corrective measures.

A team of two-three people will also be considered, utilising one national consultant with good local language and gender specific skills, along with the international consultant.

8. Applications
Interested consultants should send the following documentation to by the deadline of 30 March 2012:

• Cover letter including details of professional rates charged
• CV(s) of consultant (s)
• At least two examples of previous evaluations carried out

Organisation Alliance 2015

Country Pakistan